In every part of the world women are the weaker section of the society. That is why every country has made different laws for the protection of women. Indian Government also has made various laws to protect women. Indian constitution protects women in every aspect of life. Time to time different special provisions are also made for the purpose. Women protection laws in India are written in this blog in three different posts with a short introduction. The laws for women in Indian Constitution are as follow:
Article 14: Equality before the law for every person (Male or Female) within the territory of India.
Article 15 (i): The State not to discriminate against any citizen on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them.
Article 15 (3): The State to make any special provision in favour of women and children.
Article 16: Equality of opportunity for all citizens in matters relating to employment or appointment to any office under the State.
Article 21: No person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedure established by law.
Article 23: Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labour.
(1) Traffic in human beings and begar and other similar forms of forced labour are prohibited and any contravention of this provision shall be an offence punishable in accordance with law
(2) Nothing in this article shall prevent the State from imposing compulsory service for public purpose, and in imposing such service the State shall not make any discrimination on grounds only of religion, race, caste or class or any of them
Article 39(a): The State to direct its policy towards securing for men and women equally the right to an adequate means of livelihood.
Article 39(d): Equal pay for equal work for both men and women.
Article 39 A: To promote justice, on a basis of equal opportunity and to provide free legal aid by suitable legislation or scheme or in any other way to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reason of economic or other disabilities.
Article 42: The State to make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief.
Article 46: The State to promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people and to protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation.
Article 47: The State to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people.
Article 51(A)(e): To promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India and to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women.
Article 243 D(3): Not less than one-third (including the number of seats reserved for women belonging to the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes) of the total number of seats to be filled by direct election in every Panchayat to be reserved for women and such seats to be allotted by rotation to different constituencies in a Panchayat.
Article 243 D (4) (73rd Amendment – w.e.f. 1-6-1993): Not less than one- third of the total number of offices of Chairpersons in the Panchayats at each level to be reserved for women.
Article 243 T (3) (74th Amendment – w.e.f. 1-6-1993): Not less than one-third (including the number of seats reserved for women belonging to the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes) of the total number of seats to be filled by direct election in every Municipality to be reserved for women and such seats to be allotted by rotation to different constituencies in a Municipality.
Article 243 T (4): Reservation of offices of Chairpersons in Municipalities for the Scheduled Castes, the Scheduled Tribes and women in such manner as the legislature of a State may, by law, provide.
Article 243 G: Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, the Legislature of a State may, by law, endow the Panchayats with such powers and authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as institutions of self-government and such law may contain provisions for the devolution of powers and responsibilities upon Panchayats at the appropriate level, subject to such conditions as may be specified therein, with respect to-
(a) The preparation of plans for economic development and social justice.
(b) The implementation of schemes for economic development and social justice as may be entrusted to them including those in relation to the matters listed in the Eleventh Schedule.
Read also Laws for Women in India